“Vaccines are dead cells that are
introduces to body for sake of killing microbes or adding immunity to body
against particular disease”
Role of Vaccines in development of immunity:
v Vaccines increase immunity in a body against
v Sometime these type of infections are not deadly and
even not cause illness but also they did not show any type of symptoms.
v Therefore, when vaccines injected some imitated
vaccines show symptoms.
v When the infection goes over then memory develops by T
lymphocytes against this disease in a body for future.
v However, vaccines did not give immunity to the body at
once after injection.
v It may take
several days to get immune after getting vaccines.
v By vaccination, you get immune to different diseases.
v If someone is not vaccinated it may cause risk for
others as well because he/she is capable to spreading disease to others.
v Risk of outbreaks can develop.
v An outbreak is a cluster of cases of particular disease
with in a community.
v Out breaks in epidemics caused by unvaccinated
individuals and becoming more common.
v For example, now a day in Pakistan (December 2017 and
January 2018) swine flu is spreading in different cities.
v Five people are dead due to influenza virus because
they are not vaccinated for swine flu /influenza virus.
v An outbreak of seasonal influenza has seen in Multan
and Lahore and 23 lives have claimed out of 47 total patients.
Types of vaccines:
There are different types
. There are several types
of vaccines in use. They are
Macromolecules as Vaccines
Vaccines have different
types as well as different advantages and some disadvantages.
1: Attenuated vaccines:
This type of vaccines used to increase immunity and made
up of virulent microorganism whose effectivity reduced to from virulence.
These vaccines are activated (live).
It is low cost
It provide immunity
quickly and instantly.
The virus can
spread and can cause disease.
microorganisms make this vaccine and their effectivity is totally reduce from
They are killed
cells off microorganism, which are used in inactivated vaccines.
immunity to body against pathogenic attack.
No spreading of viruse and did not cause
They produce weak
response in contrast to live vaccines.
require to initiate their activity or their proper functioning.
As the name
indicated, it is made by poison which different pathogen secrets.
This poison is
made harmless but can cure disease.
They act against
They are used to
prevent original toxin activity in a body .
memory in a body after first injected.
They did not cause
any disease as well but some time can cause side effects to mount immune system.
4: conjugate vaccines:
They are composed of
strong and weak antigen attachment by covalent bonds to increase to effectivity
of weaker antigen.
This vaccine show up very important property, which is safe
vaccination or safety because it did not cause any harmful disease of any side
effects like live attenuated vaccination.
As this vaccine made by purification process, so
more and more purification can show the risk /loss of immunogenicity.
not show long time memory /immunity.
5: DNA vaccine:
In this type of vaccine, genetically engineer DNA introduced
to the body, which can produce itself antigen.
No booster /adjuvant is require for DNA
They are not pathogenic (live or dead) cells so
the risk of causing disease is also not concerned.
This vaccination process is limited to pathogens
/microorganisms yet .and the pathogens included who have immunogen proteins.
Sometime body can develop response against foreign
DNA vaccine or mutation can occur.
This vaccine made up of protein subunit of pathogens
/virus who show their part in immunity.
They can also consist of antigens.
It is safe for use because it did not cause side
It have ability to show up long-term memory
after first induction.
They depend only on recombinant technology and
produce specific antigen to inflammatory agent (subunit vaccines)
Viruses’ subunit can cause adverse effects in a
body or may be virulent.