Toxoplasma of HIV/AIDS 4. Toxoplasma gondii infection

Toxoplasma gondii,
one of the most common parasitic infections of man and other warm-blooded
animals, is an obligate intracellular parasite and a member
of the Apicomplexa phylum. 1  The Felidae family have prominent roles in the
epidemiology of T. gondii infection because they repel millions of
oocysts in a short time period (1-2 weeks) in feces2 and polluted
the soil, food or water. Oocysts of T. gondii have been detected in the
feces of less than 1% of cats3. Based on serological studies, About
one third of the world’s population has been exposed to this widespread
zoonotic agent 1.
It has caused a major public health concern in recent times due to the
immunosuppressive effects of HIV/AIDS 4.

Toxoplasma
gondii infection induces a powerful IFN-? driven
cell-mediated immune response in the mammalian hosts. IFN-? plays a role in
driving the transformation of tachyzoites to bradyzoites and blocks reactivation
tachyzoites 5. This is an essential response for the resolution of
acute infection and control of a chronic, latent infection in the CNS6.
Recently, some
studies have been showed that ELISA-based on IFN-?
assay could be used as useful diagnostic tool for acute and chronic T.gondii  infection7-9. Several different
diagnostic methods such as serological testes, fecal flotation technique and
PCR are used  for determining T. gondii infection in
cats.  In Iran, large numbers of cats are found
roaming residential streets and can be an important potential source of
transition of zoonotic diseases such as T. gondii infection . The  results of the epidemiological studies showed
a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats of Iran 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15. There is no
information about the prevalence of T. gondii  infection in cat in Mashhad area., Iran. The
aim of the present survey was to determine the seroprevalence of T.gondii infection
in stray cats in the Mashhad area and the relationship of seropositive
status of cat with oocyst shedding and the serum IFN-? concentration.

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