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The intellectual achievements of the Late Middle Ages, and The Renaissance all comes from the background of the works of Greek and Roman thinkers. The teachings that is left by great philosophical teachers like Greek philosopher Plato, and Roman philosopher Cicero are still being implemented into our learnings even today. Even without the knowledge from the Greeks or the Romans, the achievements accomplished during the Renaissance and Late Middle Ages will still be possible, but only the human society will lag behind on intellectual growth and development. The famous Greek and Roman structures left behind will become a mystery for all. Understanding the works from past Greek and Roman thinkers will not only accelerate our knowledge in science and mathematics, but also change the way of teaching the ideas to further generations. During the Late Middle Ages, education was most important to have because an education can get you anywhere you desire in life. Without a proper education, you will be shun upon by others. Every European wanted a proper knowledge, although some could not afford it. Peter Abelard from “The Story of My Misfortunes” said, “As cities grew in size throughout twelfth-century Europe, so too did the number of people flocking to their gates, notably students hungry for knowledge” (sources, 211). Teachers do not teach their students anything that comes up in their mind. They teach materials that was passed on for generations and written by great philosophers from Ancient Greek and Ancient Rome. Ancient Greek was well known for their great minds in science and mathematics. Greek Philosopher, Thales Miletus was the father of modern science, who implemented logic and science to everyday phenomenon instead of mythical gods and goddess, and Greek Philosopher, Pythagoras of Samos revolutionized mathematics, and invented the pythagorean theorem which is still being taught to students today. The Renaissance period was known for the rebirth of Latin language in Europe. After the crisis in the 14th century, artists and philosophical teachers brought back the real ancient teachings originally from Ancient Greece and Rome. Cicero, Varro, and Livy who were Latin writers in the Renaissance period said, “they loved the writing of the ancients, whose Latin was, in their view, ‘splendid and dignified’, unlike the Latin used in their own time” (textbook, 422). The Latin language, written and spoken in Ancient time was much pure and sacred according to those Latin writers, but it was lost when the “barbarian” monks took hold of those ancient work of art (textbook 422). Not only the Latin language rebirth, but also the artworks and architectures from Ancient Rome is brought back to life. A Florentine architect, Leon Battista Alberti rebuilt a new city upon a medieval city with the structure and knowledge taken from Ancient Rome cities, to which “each building in a city be proportioned to fit harmoniously with all the others,..and there should be market squares, play areas, and grounds for military exercises”(textbook, 424). If Leon did not understand the architecture work from Ancient Rome he would not be able to rebuild the city he dreamt of building.The works of Greek and Roman thinkers are all very important. For example, you must understand how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide basic numericals to learn higher levels of mathematics. You can apply the same numericals to science such as physics, chemistry, and astronomy. Everything you learn is connected some way to other subjects of works. What European learned in their education comes from the works of Greek and Roman philosophers, and without the knowledge of the Greeks or the Romans, Europeans will return back to acting like cavemen until someone accidently discover what is fire. The human society will only lag behind in evolution and these achievements achieved by great modern era philosophers in the Middle Age and The Renaissance will never happen. For example, the art of war has changed its shape and form through many, many wars. Humans started fighting each other with their bare knuckles and by sharpening wood led to the invention of deadly weapons like swords and spears. Then humans evolutionize their weaponry by melting metal over fire and making stronger, sharper weapons to bring to battle. Not forgetting the battle strategies like the dummy horse, the Trojan horse which led the Greeks to victory of the Trojan war. These small intellectual strategies changed the outcome of a piece of history, and my point is without the knowledge from Ancient Greeks and Romans, humans will not have evolved up to this point.To think that the works of Greek and Roman thinkers ties to the intellectual achievements of the Late Middle Ages, and The Renaissance is fascinating. Europeans back in the Late Middle Ages are taught what was discovered by the Ancient Greeks and Roman philosophers, but with some changes into what is taught to each generation of Europeans. Some factors that may affect the changes of Ancient teachings are religion, and the way the knowledge is passed down from teacher to student. Knowledge must evolve at the same rate as humans. When human discover new ideas, those ideas either coincides with the knowledge from the Greeks and Romans or those ideas will change the face of knowledge. Word Count: 869#2     “European society changed drastically from the 14th and through the 16th centuries.” (prompt). In the 14th century, there were many economic issues such as, agricultural food shortage, and shortage of silver leading to coin inflation. Worst of all is the famine that struck Europe, The Bubonic Plague; while England and France is at war between the 14th century and 15th century. Europeans has survive through many crisis, and it all turned for the best in the Renaissance period. European economic expanded greatly, and the central government grew stronger with the help of the middle class people who played an important role in economic and social life.    The Renaissance, meaning rebirth contributed the greatest to the social changes in European society. For example, Humanism, (a literary and linguistic movement) (textbook, 422) “was a way to confront the crises – and praise the advances – of the fourteen through sixteenth centuries” (textbook, 422). The first humanist, Francis Petrarch, “was a poet, writing in both Italian and Latin” (textbook, 422), believed that humanism is the answer, and is the calling of prosperity after the crisis in the 14th century. Not only literature changed the European society, but also visual art. Artists and thinkers from Italy brought over classical art into European society.The rebirth of classical art from ancient Athens and Rome with a touch of modern feel led many upper class citizens of Europe to become patrons of the arts. Artists and Architects built a medieval city where each building is proportion to each other, and includes “market squares, play areas, grounds for military exercises” (textbook, 424).     People from different cities and different part of Europe was intrigued by the active life of the city. Merchants and bankers traveled far from their homeland to come to Europe and to enjoy what the new developed cities has to offer. This caused an increase in population in the European society. Throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth century, it was known as “the most fortunate period in Florence’s history” (sources, 271), but European society did not only prosperous. There were many shifts of power in eastern Europe and western Europe. For example, the Ottoman Empire arise from the east and four powerful states (Spain, the duchy of Burgundy, France, and England) (textbook, 430) dominated in the west. Population in Western Europe increased rapidly near the fifteenth and sixteenth century. Portugal and Spain traveled oversea to North America and Africa. They expanded their trade westward and capture African men to replace their slaves. The majority of slaves were mostly prisoners of war, and because warring stopped in Europe, Portugal and Spain needed more people to craft boats and build weapons. They found a solution by kidnapping Africans and sending them to their homeland to work for them at no cost. By the late fifteenth century and early sixteenth century, Portugal’s population increased. African freedmen and slaves made up “almost three percent of the population of Portugal” (textbook, 445). In fact Portugal and Spain’s wealth increased also due to global trade system. Higher price of goods led the opportunity for farmers into making more money by producing more goods to trade. Traveling westward into North and South America caught many European attention because of the gold and silver found on those land. When there was no more left, spanish conquistadors ordered to capture native indians, and sold them into slavery back in their mainland. Because of the rapid expansion of agriculture, people needed slaves (workers) to plant crops, harvest them, and collect them to sell them on the markets.     Other Europeans found different ways to be prosperous. Two germans established a printing press in the sixteenth century. “The mechanical printing dramatically increased the speed at which people could transmit knowledge…freed individuals from having to memorize everything” (textbook, 448). This invention changed the face of art and literature.    In addition to social changes in European society, the Protestant Reformation was one of the biggest outbreak during the sixteenth century. The European who created this movement is, Martin Luther, a man who “abandoned his studies in the law,… and experienced his religious crisis: despite fervent prayers, fasting, and intense reading of the bible” (textbook, 450). Then there were those who did not accept Martin’s beliefs, and those who did not created a group called the Counter Reformation. The group consists of the Roman Catholic Church, and religious reformers gathered together to rise a rebellion, which also known as the, “Peasants’ War and attacked nobles’ castles, convents, and monasteries” (textbook, 455).     Between the fourteenth and through the sixteenth century in the European society, a lot has changed over time after the crisis of the Bubonic Plague, and the hundred years’ war in the fourteenth century. The rebirth of old ancient Athens and Greece’s arts and literature is brought into the European society. Humanism prosperous European society with ancient literature, and visual arts. Then the shifting of great power in the east and west of Europe, with Spain and Portugal traveling oversea to North America, and South America in search for gold and silver. When there was no gold or silver found, European conquistadors decided to kidnap native Americans and bring them back to their homeland to sell them off to farmers as slaves. Next, is the greatest invention made in the fifteenth century, by two germans, the mechanical printing machine that saved many European individuals from their trouble of memorizing everything. At last, the Protestant Reformation and Counter Reformation changed the face of religion and brought back Catholicism in to the European society.