The (7,600 m) (5.5 pounds per square

The pressure inside the cabin is technically
referred to as the equivalent effective cabin altitude or more
commonly as the cabin altitude. This is defined as the equivalent
altitude above mean sea level having the same atmospheric pressure
according to a standard
atmospheric model such as the International Standard Atmosphere. Thus a cabin altitude of zero would have the
pressure found at mean sea level, which is taken to be 101.325 kilopascals
(14.696 psi).3

Russian engineers used an air-like nitrogen/oxygen mixture, kept at a
cabin altitude near zero at all times, in their 1961 Vostok, 1964 Voskhod, and 1967 to present Soyuz spacecraft.18 This requires a
heavier space vehicle design, because the spacecraft cabin structure must
withstand the stress of 14.7 pounds per square inch (1 bar) against the vacuum
of space, and also because an inert nitrogen mass must be carried. Care must
also be taken to avoid decompression sickness when cosmonauts perform extravehicular activity, as current soft space suits are pressurized
with pure oxygen at relatively low pressure in order to provide reasonable
flexibility.19

By contrast, the United States used a pure oxygen atmosphere for its
1961 Mercury, 1965 Gemini, and 1967 Apollo spacecraft, mainly in order to avoid
decompression sickness.2021 Mercury used a
cabin altitude of 24,800 feet (7,600 m) (5.5 pounds per square inch
(0.38 bar));22 Gemini used an
altitude of 25,700 feet (7,800 m) (5.3 psi (0.37 bar));23 and Apollo used
27,000 feet (8,200 m) (5.0 psi (0.34 bar))24 in space. This
allowed for a lighter space vehicle design. Before launch, the pressure was
kept at slightly higher than sea level at a constant 5.3 psi
(0.37 bar) above ambient for Gemini, and 2 psi (0.14 bar) above
sea level at launch for Apollo), and transitioned to the space cabin altitude
during ascent. However, the high pressure pure oxygen atmosphere proved to be a
fatal fire hazard in Apollo, contributing to the deaths of the entire crew
of Apollo 1 during a 1967
ground test. After this, NASA revised its procedure to use a
40% nitrogen/60% oxygen mix at zero cabin altitude at launch, but kept the
low-pressure pure oxygen in space

 

 

Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates
the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that
converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation of
a natural process it is bio mimetic. The term,
artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme for
capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel
(a solar fuel). Photo catalytic water splitting converts water
into hydrogen ions and
oxygen, and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another
process studied, that replicates natural carbon fixation.

Research of this topic includes the design and assembly of devices for
the direct production of solar fuels, photo electrochemistry and its application in fuel
cells, and the engineering of enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms for
microbial bio
fuel and bio hydrogen production from
sunlight.

An airlock is a device which permits the passage of
people and objects between a pressure vessel and its
surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel
and loss of air from it. The
lock consists of a small chamber with two airtight doors in series which
do not open simultaneously.

An airlock may be used for passage between environments of different
gases rather than different pressures, to minimize or prevent the gases from
mixing.

An airlock may also be used underwater to allow passage between an air
environment in a pressure vessel and the water environment outside, in which
case the airlock can contain air or water. This is called a floodable
airlock or an underwater airlock, and is used to prevent
water from entering a submersible vessel or
an underwater 

Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle. The laboratory comprised
multiple components, including a pressurized module, an unpressurized carrier
and other related hardware housed in the Shuttle’s cargo bay. The There was a
variety of Spacelab-associated hardware, so a distinction can be made between
the major Spacelab program missions with European scientists running missions
in the Spacelab habitable module, missions running other Spacelab hardware
experiments, and other STS missions that used some component of Spacelab
hardware. There is some variation in counts of Spacelab missions, in part
because there were different types of Spacelab missions with a large range in
the amount of Spacelab hardware flown and the nature of each mission. There
were at least 22 major Spacelab missions between 1983 and 1998, and Spacelab
hardware was used on a number other missions, with some of the Spacelab pallets
being flown as late as 2008.1components were arranged in
various configurations to meet the needs of each spaceflight. In August
1973, NASA and ESRO (now European Space Agency or ESA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to
build a science laboratory for use on Space Shuttle flights.2 Construction of
Spacelab was started in 1974 by the ERNO(subsidiary of VFW-Fokker GmbH, after merger with MBB named MBB/ERNO, and
part of EADS SPACE Transportation since 2003)

More
than 3 billion people across the world are affected by not having access to clean water or proper sanitation, resulting
in the death of over 800,000 children each year. Solving this problem isn’t as
simple as install sewer or septic systems, as they require more energy

and
infrastructure than could be effective maintain in many developing state. Waste
from the latrines most commonly used in these areas are left untreated and
merely dumped into local rivers and other bodies of water, where it will
contribute to the spread of disease.

The
latest venture from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation seeks to resolve this
problem by create

 a wastewater treatment method that eliminates
disease-causing sewage from the environment and converts it into clean, drinking
water. The steam engine-powered device is called the Omni processor,
manufactured by Seattle-based Jonick Bio energy. The Omni processor can convert human waste
into clean, drinking water in a matter of minutes, while produce energy to
incinerate the remain waste solids and leave 260 kilowatts to spare. The
resulting ash does not have an odour and will not contain disease-causing
microbes.

Using
the waste from 200,000 people, the Omni processor will produce 75,000 litres of
water per day, enough for 63,000 people. Though there is a deficit in
supply and demand, this will be a tremendous relief for people in these areas.
This isn’t meant to be strictly charity, but a means of creating self-supported
economies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The pressure inside the cabin is technically
referred to as the equivalent effective cabin altitude or more
commonly as the cabin altitude. This is defined as the equivalent
altitude above mean sea level having the same atmospheric pressure
according to a standard
atmospheric model such as the International Standard Atmosphere. Thus a cabin altitude of zero would have the
pressure found at mean sea level, which is taken to be 101.325 kilopascals
(14.696 psi).3

Russian engineers used an air-like nitrogen/oxygen mixture, kept at a
cabin altitude near zero at all times, in their 1961 Vostok, 1964 Voskhod, and 1967 to present Soyuz spacecraft.18 This requires a
heavier space vehicle design, because the spacecraft cabin structure must
withstand the stress of 14.7 pounds per square inch (1 bar) against the vacuum
of space, and also because an inert nitrogen mass must be carried. Care must
also be taken to avoid decompression sickness when cosmonauts perform extravehicular activity, as current soft space suits are pressurized
with pure oxygen at relatively low pressure in order to provide reasonable
flexibility.19

By contrast, the United States used a pure oxygen atmosphere for its
1961 Mercury, 1965 Gemini, and 1967 Apollo spacecraft, mainly in order to avoid
decompression sickness.2021 Mercury used a
cabin altitude of 24,800 feet (7,600 m) (5.5 pounds per square inch
(0.38 bar));22 Gemini used an
altitude of 25,700 feet (7,800 m) (5.3 psi (0.37 bar));23 and Apollo used
27,000 feet (8,200 m) (5.0 psi (0.34 bar))24 in space. This
allowed for a lighter space vehicle design. Before launch, the pressure was
kept at slightly higher than sea level at a constant 5.3 psi
(0.37 bar) above ambient for Gemini, and 2 psi (0.14 bar) above
sea level at launch for Apollo), and transitioned to the space cabin altitude
during ascent. However, the high pressure pure oxygen atmosphere proved to be a
fatal fire hazard in Apollo, contributing to the deaths of the entire crew
of Apollo 1 during a 1967
ground test. After this, NASA revised its procedure to use a
40% nitrogen/60% oxygen mix at zero cabin altitude at launch, but kept the
low-pressure pure oxygen in space

 

 

Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates
the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that
converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation of
a natural process it is bio mimetic. The term,
artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme for
capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel
(a solar fuel). Photo catalytic water splitting converts water
into hydrogen ions and
oxygen, and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another
process studied, that replicates natural carbon fixation.

Research of this topic includes the design and assembly of devices for
the direct production of solar fuels, photo electrochemistry and its application in fuel
cells, and the engineering of enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms for
microbial bio
fuel and bio hydrogen production from
sunlight.

An airlock is a device which permits the passage of
people and objects between a pressure vessel and its
surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel
and loss of air from it. The
lock consists of a small chamber with two airtight doors in series which
do not open simultaneously.

An airlock may be used for passage between environments of different
gases rather than different pressures, to minimize or prevent the gases from
mixing.

An airlock may also be used underwater to allow passage between an air
environment in a pressure vessel and the water environment outside, in which
case the airlock can contain air or water. This is called a floodable
airlock or an underwater airlock, and is used to prevent
water from entering a submersible vessel or
an underwater 

Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle. The laboratory comprised
multiple components, including a pressurized module, an unpressurized carrier
and other related hardware housed in the Shuttle’s cargo bay. The There was a
variety of Spacelab-associated hardware, so a distinction can be made between
the major Spacelab program missions with European scientists running missions
in the Spacelab habitable module, missions running other Spacelab hardware
experiments, and other STS missions that used some component of Spacelab
hardware. There is some variation in counts of Spacelab missions, in part
because there were different types of Spacelab missions with a large range in
the amount of Spacelab hardware flown and the nature of each mission. There
were at least 22 major Spacelab missions between 1983 and 1998, and Spacelab
hardware was used on a number other missions, with some of the Spacelab pallets
being flown as late as 2008.1components were arranged in
various configurations to meet the needs of each spaceflight. In August
1973, NASA and ESRO (now European Space Agency or ESA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to
build a science laboratory for use on Space Shuttle flights.2 Construction of
Spacelab was started in 1974 by the ERNO(subsidiary of VFW-Fokker GmbH, after merger with MBB named MBB/ERNO, and
part of EADS SPACE Transportation since 2003)

More
than 3 billion people across the world are affected by not having access to clean water or proper sanitation, resulting
in the death of over 800,000 children each year. Solving this problem isn’t as
simple as install sewer or septic systems, as they require more energy

and
infrastructure than could be effective maintain in many developing state. Waste
from the latrines most commonly used in these areas are left untreated and
merely dumped into local rivers and other bodies of water, where it will
contribute to the spread of disease.

The
latest venture from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation seeks to resolve this
problem by create

 a wastewater treatment method that eliminates
disease-causing sewage from the environment and converts it into clean, drinking
water. The steam engine-powered device is called the Omni processor,
manufactured by Seattle-based Jonick Bio energy. The Omni processor can convert human waste
into clean, drinking water in a matter of minutes, while produce energy to
incinerate the remain waste solids and leave 260 kilowatts to spare. The
resulting ash does not have an odour and will not contain disease-causing
microbes.

Using
the waste from 200,000 people, the Omni processor will produce 75,000 litres of
water per day, enough for 63,000 people. Though there is a deficit in
supply and demand, this will be a tremendous relief for people in these areas.
This isn’t meant to be strictly charity, but a means of creating self-supported
economies.