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Rosa de VeraScott DeWaelscheHistory 9AJan 15 2017Haitian Revolution Textbook Chapter: InformationThe Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)Essential Question: What inspired the people of Saint-Domingue to revolt?Part I: The Creation of Saint-DomingueThe People of Hispaniola Hispaniola is an island in the Caribbean whereby the seventeenth century was colonized by both the Spanish and the French. But before Europeans settled on this island, a group of people named the Tainos inhabited Hispaniola. These natives called their island “Ayti”, meaning “mountainous land”. Generations before the Spanish arrived in the island, the Tainos migrated from South America to populate the Caribbean. They lived in large villages governed by male or female caciques or chiefs. According to Choices: The Haitian Revolution, historians estimate that before the arrival of Europeans, the indigenous population on Hispaniola numbered anywhere from 500,000 to a million people (Choices, 2). These people ranged from woodworkers and weavers to agricultural experts. (Who were the Tainos?)The Arrival of the Spanish On December 6, 1492, Christopher Columbus arrived in North Hispaniola and created the first European settlement. He built a small fort called La Navidad where he left 39 of his men to search for gold. These men mistreated the Tainos by raiding their villages, capturing their women and committing violent acts. In turn, the natives killed the men and burned down their fort. When Columbus returned in 1493 with 1,200 men in order to enlarge their settlement, he finds the ruins of La Navidad. Although, Columbus creates a Spanish colony named Santo Domingo. (What happened to La Navidad?)European Settlement The Spanish conquistadors, or conquerors, enslaved the Tainos and forced them to mine for gold. After a few decades, most of the native population died due to European diseases and slavery’s harsh conditions. Because of this, the Spanish began importing slaves from Africa in 1502. Once the gold mines were exhausted, the settlers started to raise cattle and grow sugar. The imported slaves worked in plantations and sugar mills which made the economy of Hispaniola dependent on trade.France sent a representative in the 1640s to establish its claim on Hispaniola being interested in these riches. During the 1670s, the French created permanent settlements and began tobacco, sugar, and coffee production. This created a plantation-based economy which required the colonists to import more slaves from Africa in order to create a larger labor force. On September 20, 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick recognized the east side of Hispaniola as the French colony of Saint-Domingue and became the wealthiest colony in the Caribbean. (How did Saint-Domingue become the wealthiest colony in the Caribbean?)The Black Code In 1685, King Louis XIV created the Code Noir, also known as the Black Code, which were a set of laws the outlined France’s position on slavery in Saint-Domingue. (insert picture and as subs or text beside write this:) These set of codes stated that slaves were the private property of their masters, gave the plantation owners the right to shoot anyone they thought to be a fugitive. These runaway slaves were called maroons and if caught, they could have their ears off or killed. In addition, slaves could not gather for marriages, dances or other ceremonies. (What was the Code Noir/Black Code?)”‘The slave . . . inconstant by nature and capable of comparing his present state with that to which he aspires, is incessantly inclined toward marronage. It is his ability to think, and not the instinct of domestic animals who flee a cruel master in hope of bettering their condition, that compels him to flee. That which appears to offer him a happier state, that which facilitates his inconstance, is the path which he will embrace.’ — From the register of the Upper Council of Le cap, 1767″ (History of Haiti)Social Structure in Saint-Domingue (include a diagram showing the 4 classes + explanations: 1 White planters “Grand Blancs”, 2 Affranchis “mulattoes”, 3 Poor Whites “Petits Blancs”, and 4 Slaves)Part II: The Revolution of Saint-DomingueThe French Revolution In 1789 the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen was created during the French Revolution by the National Assembly. This written document explains a list of rights for French citizens, and many slaves in Saint-Domingue believed that this gave them the same rights as it did to people in France, but their white masters refused to abide. By August 1791, a revolution broke out in the north which took months of strategizing. It began with a rebellion that soon inspired revolts across Hispaniola. (How did the French Revolution impact the Haitian Revolution?)The Revolt The leader of the rebellion which started the Haitian Revolution was an enslaved man named Boukman Dutty. In August 1791, this lead organizer signalled the rebels to light plantations on fire, and the slave revolt began. At the start, the main goals of the rebels were to improve working conditions on plantations, end the punishment use of the whip, and to have more days of rest. As this revolt went on, their goals became more radical, such as seeing the complete expulsion of the whites from Saint-Domingue. On the other hand, division between the whites and affranchis also brought violence. In May 2017, all free people of color born of free parents were equal in rights to whites. Although it affected only hundreds, angry white citizens made France annul the law. From this, affranchis too joined rebellions or started ones of their own. In these early days of the rebellion, Britain and Spain attempt to remain neutral as they feared that the revolution would spread across the border to British Jamaica and Spanish Santo Domingo. Although, this was not possible as France declared a Republic under the National Convention. By early 1793, Saint-Domingue rebel leaders, such as Toussaint Louverture, joined Spain’s fight against the French. (Why did the Haitian Revolution begin?)”‘There can be no agriculture in Saint-Domingue without slavery; we did not go to fetch half a million savage slaves off the coast of Africa to bring them to the colony as French citizens.’ —A colonist in Saint-Domingue, 1792″  (Choices, 14)Toussaint LouvertureToussaint Louverture was enslaved in Saint-Domingue, until he was freed by his progressive master in the 1770s. Being known for military intelligence, his army under the Spanish grew to thousands of troops.European Reaction Whilst Spanish soldiers were preoccupied with the battle close to the border in Santo Domingo, the south and southwest portion of Saint-Domingue were taken over by by British forces. In addition, white planters allied with Britain because they believed that this was the only way to maintain slavery in the colony. By 1794, the National Assembly in France abolished slavery to win over the rebels. From this, Louverture switched sides and joined the French. A year later, Spain signed the Treaty of Basel knowing that they could not win this battle, and gave up Santo Domingo to the French. This was marked as Louverture’s volte-face by historians since it was the turning point in the Haitian Revolution because of his support allowing France to control the colony. In March 1796, Louverture was titled as Lieutenant Governor of Saint-Domingue. (Why did Spain lose the battle?)The War of the KnivesAlthough Louverture was victorious against the French, Britain still maintained slavery and plantation on the southwest portion of the colony. In 1797, him and the Affranchis’ leader, Andre Rigaud, pushed Britain out but this alliance was only temporary. Soon, a civil war broke out to determine who would have control of the colony. This war was called the War of the Knives. The two leaders were more motivated by economic interests, even though it seemed as it was a war of race. Affranchis wanted to keep their economical and political privileges, while the blacks feared that slavery and inequality would return if Rigaud won. Louverture blockaded Riguads’ army for 5 months so they could not receive supplies and by July 1800, he sent his top general Jean-Jacques Dessalines to defeat Rigauds’ forces. Once again, Louverture was victorious because of the treaties he signed with Britain and the US to supply him with resources. These two countries contributed hoping that Louverture would weaken France’s position in the Caribbean. (What were the two sides’ interests in the war?)The Constitution of 1801 Although this document was intended to be a step forward for Saint-Domingue, Louverture faced criticism. The large estates prevented many people from owning land, white planters were invited back into the colony, and although people received daily wages for work, former slaves felt as if these policies were another way to name slavery. As a result, they wanted full independence from France. (Was this document a step forwards or backwards for Saint-Domingue?)Part III: Haiti’s IndependenceLouverture’s Demise Napoleon, believing that the Constitution of 1801 was a hostile move for independence, sent 20,000 troops and appointed General Leclerc to restore stability and order in Saint-Domingue. By February 1802, the south area of the colony was captured and half of Louverture’s men joined the French army. In April, Louverture agreed to negotiate with Leclerc but only a month later was betrayed and Louverture was imprisoned in the French Alps, and died the next year. (What caused Louverture’s Demise?)The Fight for Independence In July 1802, Leclerc reinstated slavery in Saint-Domingue and from this, soldiers abandoned the French army. In response, France conducted brutal terror campaigns against the blacks and mulattoes such as mass executions, drownings, hangings, and burnings. In October, Generals Dessalines, left the French army to join the revolt. He began the scorched-earth campaign, where they burned down towns and plantations. Dessalines was victorious against many of Napoleon’s troops, but a cause of some of these deaths is Yellow fever, which also killed Leclerc. By May 1803, Dessalines created the Haitian flag by removing the white from the French flag, keeping the red and blue to represent the unity of the blacks and mulattoes against the whites. (What did the Haitian flag represent?) “‘Here is my opinion of this country. We must destroy all the negroes in the hills, men and women, sparing only children under twelve…and leave behind not a single man of color who has worn an epaulette—without this the colony will never be at peace.’ —Leclerc in a letter to Bonaparte, October 1802” (Choices, 37)Independence On January 1, 1804, Dessalines published a Declaration of Independence, abolishing Saint-Domingue forever and restoring the original Taino name of Hayti. Haiti became the first black republic in the world. Afterwards, he slaughtered the remaining French population on the island, which was 4,000 people. In October of the same year, Dessalines was crowned Emperor Jacques I of Haiti.Haiti’s Downfall As Napoleon reacts to Haiti’s independence, he lobbies the US, England, and Spain to isolate Haiti diplomatically. The world was hostile to the idea of a country being run by blacks which destroyed the country’s infrastructure and economy. Once France recognized Haiti’s independence in 1825, King Charles X forced Haiti to agree to pay a debt equivalent to $22 billion for the damage caused during the revolution. The country was forced to take high-interest loans and only paid off this debt by 1947. The country of Haiti declined from being one of the world’s wealthiest colonies to one of the world’s most impoverished countries. (What made it difficult for Haiti to develop economically?)