Prathik.M Chennai-44, India [email protected] Anitha.K Department of

 

Prathik.M

Assistant
Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

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Sri Sairam
Engineering College

Chennai-44,
India

[email protected]

Anitha.K

Department
of EEE

Sri
Sairam Engineering College

Chennai-44,
India

[email protected]

Anitha.V

Department
of EEE

Sri
Sairam Engineering College

Chennai-44,
India

[email protected]

 

 

Abstract— Electricity plays a cardinal
role in day to day life. The electrical energy consumption in India is the third
biggest after China and USA with 5.5% global share in 2016. The per person
energy use rate in India is closer to 0.7 KW. India’s share with global energy
demand will rise to 9% by 2035. Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging
field and IoT based devices have created a revolution in electronics and IT. The foremost objective of this project is to create
awareness about energy consumption and efficient use of home appliances for
energy savings. Due to manual work, our existing electricity billing system has
major drawbacks. This system gives the information on meter reading, power cut
and the alert systems for producing an alarm when energy consumption exceeds
beyond the specified limit using IoT. This idea is being implemented to reduce
the human dependency to collect the monthly reading and minimize the technical
problems regarding billing process. This project extends the design and
implementation of an energy monitoring system with the pre-intimation of power
agenda using Arduino micro controller and a GSM (Global System for Mobile
Communication) module. The advantage of this system is that a user can
understand the power consumed by the electrical appliances on the daily basis
and can take further steps to control them and thus help in energy
conservation. From the electricity
board section, the information regarding the bill amount, payment and the
pre-planned power shut down details are communicated to the consumer. If the
customer does not pay the bill in time, the user is informed through a message.
If still the customer does not pay the bill, then as per designated
consideration, one alert message will be sent then automatically power
connection is disconnected from the remote server. In the already existing
smart energy meter, it shows the energy consumed by the appliances from the
date of installation of the energy meter and its corresponding rupees. In this
proposed energy meter, the meter gives the energy consumed on daily basis, its
corresponding rupees, billing details and payment using IoT. Additionally, it
has the main objective of giving the pre-intimation of power schedule and an
alert system for producing an alarm when the energy consumption exceeds beyond
the certain limit. It also has the facility of terminating the power supply
when the residents are out of station to minimize the wastage of energy.  This system not only reduces the power cut
issues and the labor cost for noticing the residential energy consumption in
regular intervals but also increases the energy conservation with the help of
alarm systems and the energy meter accuracy by reducing the billing error and
the cost of maintenance.     

 

   Keywords—arduino, GSM, IoT, energy consumption, human dependancy,
shut down, alert message, payment details, daily basis, alarm sysytems.

                                                                                                       
I.      Introduction

    The utility sector in
India has one National Grid with an installed capacity of 330.86 GW as on 30
November 2017. Renewable power plants constituted for 31.7% of total installed
capacity. During the year 2016-2017, the gross electricity generated by
utilities in India was 1,236.39 TWh and the total electricity generation in the
country was 1,433.4 TWh. In the year 2016-2017, the gross electricity
consumption was 1,122 kWh per capita. India is the third largest producer of
electricity in the world and stands fourth largest in the electricity
consumption. The electric energy consumed by the agricultural sector was recorded
17.89% in 2015-16 among all countries. Despite cheaper electricity tariff in
India, the per capita electricity consumption is low compared to many countries.

    The power generation
capacity in India is surplus but the adequate infrastructure for supplying
electricity to all needy people is lacking. In order to develop the infrastructure
to to supply adequate electricity to all the needy people in the country by
March 2019, the Government of India launched a scheme called “Power for All”.
This scheme will ensure continuous and uninterrupted power supply to all industries,
households, and commercial establishments by improving necessary infrastructure.
It’s a joint responsibility by the Government of India with states to share
funding and create overall growth of the economy.

    The electricity sector
in India is dominated by fossil fuels, particularly coal, which produced about
two thirds of all electricity in the year 2016. However, only the investment of
renewable energy is increased by the Government. The Draft National Electricity
Plan of 2016 prepared by the Government of India states that the country does
not need additional non-renewable power plants in the utility sector until
2027, with the commissioning of 50,025 MW coal-based power plants under
construction and achieving 275,000 MW total installed renewable power capacity.

    India became the third largest producer of electricity
in the world with 4.8% of global share. Out of the total power generated the
renewable energy constituted for about 28.43% and the non-renewable energy
constituted for about 71.57% 1. Electricity is the vital requirement for
leading a comfortable life. It is to be properly used and managed. At present,
the human operator from the Electricity Board visits the resident to take the
readings from the energy meter and produces the bill for the particular month
manually.

The idea is being proposed to reduce the
human interference to collect the monthly reading and to minimize the technical
problems regarding the billing process. From the electricity board section, the
information regarding the bill amount, payment and the pre-planned power shut
down details are communicated to the consumer. If the customer does not

pay the bill in
time, the user is informed through a message using IoT. If still the customer does not pay
the bill, then as per designated consideration, one alert message will be sent
then automatically power connection is disconnected from the remote server. It
provides pre-intimation of power cut details and also the energy
consumption  on daily basis. It provides
an alert if the energy consumption exceeds beyond the certain limit. It also
has the facility of terminating the power supply through a message when the residents are out
of station to minimize the wastage of energy. It is
an effective way of greater accuracy, improved billing.

In apartments, the
energy meter is far away from the residents. An LCD display is placed in each
residential house in the apartment to inform about the messages regarding the
power cut, energy consumption on daily basis, billing details and an alarm for
the critical limit indication.

These features are
implemented using the Arduino NodeMCU (esp8266) micro controller and a GSM
module 1. Esp8266 chip is the wifi module which helps in transferring the
data through the internet. In case, if internet does not work, a GSM is used
for backup purposes.

 

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM

 

                                                                                                  
II.    Proposed System

     The
existing model is a time consuming process and it needs a lot of labor. The
proposed system eliminates the need of labor and it is a cost efficient and a
time saving process.

     The
proposed system gives the information about the energy consumption on daily
basis, billing and payment through IoT, pre-intimation of shut down details,
alert systems when the energy consumption exceeds beyond the critical limit and
the disconnection of power through a message when the residential are out of
station to prevent the wastage of energy.

 

                                                                                              
III.   System Description

    In this system, a unique Id is given for each energy meter. This unique Id
number is interlinked with the customer’s unique mobile Id number. It
constantly monitors the energy meter. The energy consumption from each house is
sent to the control station through the web server and the billing and power
cut details are sent from the control station to the residential energy meter.

A.    Energy consumption on daily basis

In the existing
energy meter, the meter shows the energy consumed from the date of
installation. In this system, the daily energy consumed is calculated using the
arduino micro controller and it is displayed in the LCD. It is also
communicated to the consumer’s mobile using IoT.

B.   
Billing
And Payment Through IoT

      The
billing detail for the energy consumed is communicated to the consumer monthly
through the web server using IoT and as a message through the GSM module.  The payment is also made through the web
server. This helps in eliminating the manual dependency to collect the reading.

C.   Pre-Intimation of Shut Down

      The
sudden power cut causes major problems in hospitals, industries and in public
sectors. In order to be aware or to make safety precautions in hospitals, the
power cut is announced in advance. The power cut details are sent from EB web
server to the consumer’s unique ID using IoT and it is also sent to the
consumer’s mobile as a message through the GSM module. The details are also
displayed in the LCD display after an alarm. The alarm is used to indicate the residential
that a new message has been received.

 

                

                             

                                   LCD Display

D.  
Alert
Systems

     Our
electricity billing system has a format that when the energy is consumed beyond
the certain limit, double charges are collected i.e. they are charged twice the
normal rate. In order to create awareness to the public, an alarm will be
provided when the energy consumed by the consumer reaches a nearer value of
critical limit. The message is also displayed in the LCD display.

E.   
Power Disconnection
through a message

When the residential are out of station and if
they have forgotten to off the power, it can be disconnected by sending a
message through the GSM module. This helps to prevent the wastage of energy if
any equipment has been forgotten to off.

 

                                                                                                       
IV.   Advantages

·       
This
system shows the energy consumed on daily basis, hence it helps to reduce the
consumption by comparing the daily usages.

·       
It reduces
the human interference to collect the monthly reading and it also saves the time
and money.

·       
The pre-announced
shut down details helps to take necessary preventive measures and also helps to
charge the essential equipments.

·       
The alarm system
helps to create awareness to the public regarding their energy consumption and
the corresponding charges.

·       
It prevents
the wastage of energy by disconnecting the power through a message when the
residents are out of station.

·       
The LCD
display, situated in the distribution board helps the residents in the
apartments to be aware of the messages in the LCD display since they are far
away from the energy meter.

                                                                                                        
V.    Conclusion

     The
Arduino esp8266 micro controller is programmed to perform the objectives with
the help of GSM module. It is proposed to overcome all the disadvantages in the
already existing energy meter. All the details are sent to the consumer’s mobile
through the IoT and the GSM module and it is also displayed in the LCD.  It is a time saving process and it helps to
eliminate the human interference.

 

References

1.     
Himshekhar
Das and L.C.Saikia, “GSM enabled smart energy meter and automation of home appliances”,
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015.

2.     
V.Preethi
and G.Harish, “Design and implementation of smart energy meter”, Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016.

3.     
Md.Masudur
Rahman, Noor-E-Jannat, Mohd. Ohidul Islam and Md. Serazus, “Arduino and GSM
based smart energy meter for advanced metering and billing sytem”, Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015.

4.     
S.Visalatchi
and K Kamal Sandeep, “Smart energy metering and power theft control using
arduino & GSM”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),
2017.

5.     
Gobhinath.S,
Gunasundari.N and Gowthami.P, “Internet of Things (IoT) Based Energy Meter”,
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 2016.

6.     
P.V.Santhosh
Roja, B.Kiran Babu and V. Samson Deva Kumar, “Wireless Energy Meter and Billing
via SMS”, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2013.

7.     
Vanishree
k Rao and Sri G N Madhu, “GSM based Energy Meter Reading and Billing”,
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2016.

8.     
Pritee
Mahajan, Sneha Tatia and Prachi Jadhav, “Smart Meter: An IOT Based Meter for
Live Electricity Monitoring and Bill Payment”, International Journal of
Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS), 2017.