Need fatigue, bad road conditions, drunk and

Need for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS)

     Road conditions are not the same the way
it was around 20 years. The roads are now increasingly congested and more
accidents are reported to due various reasons like driver fatigue, bad road
conditions, drunk and drive etc. In this section the details of the need for a
Advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) are presented as below.

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(i)    Accidents
happen when pedestrians or obstacles appear nearby car and the driver is not
attentive to the upcoming pedestrian or obstacle.

(ii)  Accidents
happen when the driver is drunk and driving.

Increased car theft cases are there as the mechanical
key is no longer a safe solution and car can be robbed by duplicating the keys.

(iv) Vehicle engine
conditions must be known to driver, so that he can drive accordingly.

(v)  Dash boards
are increasingly populated with entertainment systems, so accurate fuel level
indication must be presented in a manner, so that driver is well informed.

1.4 Parameters of the Advanced Driving System

The aim and objective of the present research work is to
develop a low cost integrated advanced driver assistance information system
which provides the safety, security and authentication to drive the vehicle to
the destination safely. The parameters that are considered for the
present research work in the area of automotive electronics are

Vehicle Theft Protection and Authentication

Vehicle Infotainment

Driving Assistance System

1.4.1. Vehicle Theft
Protection and Authentication

In the
present scenario Car/vehicle theft has been a persisting problem around the
world and greater challenge comes from professional thieves. Currently,
automobile manufacturers use computer chips and other common security methods
to ensure that even complete copy of the original car mechanical keys, can only
open the door, but cannot start the car. However, there is variety of vehicles
decoder 9 on the market and the thieves can use the decoder to replicate the
electronic chip keys, which can start the car, in just a few minutes. Such as
the decoder, which used the latest intelligence decoder chip developed by the
United States, can unlock the most electronic locks of Mercedes Benz, BMW,
Audi, Ferrari and other high-end models. Thus, modern security can be deceived
by professional thieves using the bio parameters such  Fingerprint, Face recognition and also
alcohol detection which is the measure problem for the occurrences of

1.4.2. Vehicle

 Infotainment units are hardware devices used
in vehicles to provide navigation, connectivity and audio / visual
entertainment. Most vehicles nowadays have infotainment for entertainment which
are connected with devices such as personal navigation systems and smart phones
with a hands-free car kit. Smart phone connectivity bridges the product life
cycle gap between car infotainment systems and smart phones. It utilizes the
advances made in a rapidly expanding smart phone based infotainment system.
Infotainment features include, handset integration, head-up display,
infotainment systems for driver assistance, interior personalization and Cloud
based infotainment.

1.4.3. Driving Assistance

systems are developed to automate/adapt/enhance vehicle systems for safety and
better driving. Safety features are designed to avoid collisions and accidents
by offering technologies that alert the driver to potential problems, or to
avoid collisions by implementing safeguards and taking over control of the
vehicle. Adaptive features may automate lighting, provide adaptive cruise
control, automate braking, incorporate GPS/ traffic warnings, connect to
smartphones, alert driver to other cars or dangers, keep the driver in the
correct lane, or show what is in blind spots.






1.5.1      Survey
on Vehicle Theft Protection


1 the author proposed a security module for the car appliances to avoid
stealing and illegal use on other cars. An open structure which includes
authentication and encryption by embed a security module in each to protect car
appliances was proposed. The identification of components which deals with
relevant procedures were also presented in this work. This work was expected to
create new business opportunity to the automotive and technology industry

2 the author explains about an auto security anti-theft system with an
Immobilizer system through the radio frequency identification (RFID) has been
presented by which characterizes low hacking rate while ensuring the safety
supports of the passengers when the vehicle is hijacked. The active RFID
technology has been used for the operation of the immobilizer system whereby
three control circuits from the receiving unit which are in the vehicle,
namely, ignition circuit, power control unit, and automatic gear changing
system, enabling the vehicle speed is brought down to zero in a gradual safe
manner. The proposed anti-theft auto security system has been tested under
various climate conditions and possible signal instability situations were used
to test its reliability. This paper proposes a smart anti-theft car security
system, which not only identifies thief but also controls the car.

In 3 the authors developed an
embedded system design to control automobile peripherals automatically through
voice recognition system. The profile of the authorize user was configured and
saved in the system which operates specific settings for the user. Whenever the
user wishes to drive the car, system will initiate the personal settings by
identifying the users voice which includes the side and rear mirrors setting
and seat adjustments. The use of DM642 media processor allows the real time
snapshot of the driver to be taken and displayed on the LCD screen with
available profile report. The remotely operation of the smart car locked or
unlocked was also performed using GSM modem. Some another features such as
navigation and tracking of car using GPS module was also incorporated into the
system. The latitude and longitude positions were also taken by the system from
GPS and real time car location was also display on the PC using GSM modem.

In 4 the authors explain an
efficient automotive security system has been implemented for anti-theft using
an embedded system occupied with GPS and GSM. In this work, the client
communicates through this system with vehicles and the vehicles current
locations and status are determined using Google Earth. The position of
targeted vehicles is tracked by the user on Google Earth. By using GPS locator,
the target current location is determined and sent, alongside with various
parameters received by vehicles data port, via SMS through GSM networks 12.
In order to secure the vehicle, the user in a group of users can turn off many
vehicle of the fleet if any intruders is noticed to run it by blocking the gas
feeding line.

In 5 the authors proposed the use of
MMS Based Car Security System for solving issue. This system integrated
monitoring and tracking system. SMS and MMS are sent to the owner to initiate
fast response most especially when the car is close by. This project focuses on
SMS and MMS technology. Whenever intrusion is detected, the SMS and the picture
of the intruder are first sent to main user via local GSM/GPRS service provider
to user (and/or) police mail ID. The results obtained from the implementation and
testing indicated the success in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds by the
prototype. The time taken to receive the SMS and MMS by the owner and police
are suitable to take action against intruder. Control commands are also sent to
the module by the User while configuring module for master. Only master user
can make changes in the module.

In 6 the authors studied the use of
Biometric Approach for Vehicle Security System Using Fingerprint Recognition.
In all the areas, an embedded computing technology is used. A competent
automotive security system has been implemented using embedded system along
with Global System for Mobile (GSM) and Fingerprint Recognition. Literature
survey in this work has illustrated vehicle security system using person identification
techniques. The survey mainly raised emphasizes on major approaches for
automatic person identification, such as fingerprint recognition and various
existing vehicle security system. The security system can be implemented using

1.5.2 Survey
on Vehicle Infotainment

Embedded Automotive 10  Platform, or
more commonly known as Microsoft Auto, is a closed-source platform designed
specifically for the purpose of In-Vehicle Infotainment. Microsoft Auto
provides a platform for automakers to take, and build ?on-top’, to design an
infotainment system that is specifically tailored to their needs. Microsoft
Auto provides all the necessary backbone for the platform including multimedia
synchronization capabilities, speech recognition, communication and multimedia
libraries which offer the basic infrastructure for an infotainment system 13.
Automotive manufacturers take this platform and redesign the look and feel
while adding specific functionalities relevant to the automakers 14 direction
and strategy.

SYNC, powered by Microsoft Auto, is a proprietary closed-source system designed
by Ford and intended to be used in Ford vehicles produced from 2008 onwards
(Piotrowski, 24 January 2007). Ford Sync is powered by an ARM11 mobile
processor which includes 256MB RAM and 2GB Flash Memory. The Ford Sync has an
extensive feature-base which enables the synchronization of portable devices
with the infotainment system to allow a central entertainment source as well as
an informative system that provides driver enhancements. The system also has
support for GPS navigation, including a Traffic Alert service as well as Turn
by Turn. These services are only free for the first three years of the vehicle,
and then they can be purchased by a monthly or yearly subscription from the
service provider. Since this system is designed by Ford, its design is
compatible with the vehicle’s Engine Control Unit (ECU) in retrieving certain
data to display for the user. This ability enables the provision of two
important features; Vehicle Health Reports and the 911 Assist (Ford Motor
Company, 2009).

Kia UVO system is developed by Kia Motors and also powered by the Microsoft
Auto platform. Kia UVO is equipped with a large display touch-screen, usually
4.3 inches. The Kia UVO delivers no real difference in regards to functionality
offered by Microsoft Auto, except the ?            Reverse
Camera ‘feature. The reversing camera, also known as a back-up camera, is a
camera that is placed around the rear bumper area (Microsoft, 2010). This
provides the users with a view of the rear of the vehicle providing vision to
any obscurity that is limited by the rear-view mirror. The images captured by
the reverse camera are displayed on the LCD screen for the user in real-time.

is FIAT’s and Microsoft joint implementation of the Microsoft Auto platform.
This product provides all the features of the Microsoft Auto platform with the
ability to add different types of mobile devices. The Eco Drive feature, which
is FIAT’s unique enhancement to the infotainment system, offers users the
ability to determine the driving efficiency of the user. This collects any
necessary data from the vehicle’s ECU in regards to vehicle emissions.

1.5.3 Advanced Driving Assistance
System (ADAS)

driver assist technologies, such as anti-lock brakes, electronic stability
control and traction control, have been around for decades, they have been
relatively unobtrusive, operating behind the scenes without the average driver
ever knowing. Today’s more advanced driver assist systems — like adaptive
cruise control, automated emergency braking or blind spot monitoring — are
more meddlesome. They provide motorists with essential information about their
surroundings and automate difficult or repetitive tasks in the hope of an
overall increase in safety. Essentially, they compensate for the weakest link:
the driver.

these new autonomous technologies are being developed at a blistering pace. In
just one model year, advanced driver assists have gone from being offered in a
minority of new vehicles to being sold in the majority. Some experts believe DAS
technologies are becoming the next competitive area, a place for an automaker
to differentiate its vehicles from another’s

Latest DAS offerings are

Predictive emergency braking

Predictive pedestrian

Lane departure warning

Lane keeping support

Lane change assist

Construction zone assist

Rear cross traffic alert

Drive Drowsiness Detection

An explanation for all the above are
presented as below to have some understanding on Advanced Driving Assistance
System very useful and helpful to drive the vehicle safely to to destination. Predictive emergency braking system

assists in avoiding rear-end collisions and mitigating the consequences. The
predictive emergency braking system becomes active as soon as the vehicle is
started, and supports the driver at all speeds — both by day and by night.
Nevertheless, the driver still has a responsibility to pay attention and drive
carefully at all times Predictive Pedestrian protection

predictive pedestrian protection system can recognize impending accidents with
pedestrians who are in the same lane as the vehicle or who are moving dangerously
into this direction. If the system detects a critical situation for
pedestrians, it can warn the driver or automatically initiate emergency braking
or giving a warning to the driver applying break in time to avoid accident. .
In this way, the collision with the pedestrian can be avoided, or the vehicle’s
speed can at least be reduced as much as possible prior to impact. This can
reduce the risk of serious injury to an absolute minimum. This parameter is
taken in to consideration to develop and implement in the present research work
for proving the ADAS with the help of engineering automotive software 11  which provides more accurate safety vehicles Lane Departure warning

departure warning uses a video camera to detect lane markings ahead of the
vehicle and to monitor the vehicle’s position in its lane. When the function
detects that the vehicle is about to unintentionally move out of the lane, it
warns the driver by means of a visual, audible and/or haptic signal, such as
steering 15 wheel vibration. These warnings signal the driver that the
vehicle is drifting off course, allowing him/her to counter steer accordingly.
The function does not issue a warning when the driver activates the turn signal
to change lanes or turn intentionally. Lane Keeping Support

function also uses a video camera to detect the lane markings ahead of the
vehicle. If it detects that the vehicle is getting too close to the side of its
lane, Lane Keeping Support will take action. In vehicles with electric power
steering, Lane Keeping Support will gently but noticeably counter steer, to
keep the vehicle in the lane. In vehicles without electric power steering,
counter-steering can be achieved by applying braking power to individual
wheels. The driver is always responsible for control of his/her vehicle and can
override the counter steering at any time. When the driver activates the turn
signal to intentionally change lanes or turn, the function does not intervene.   Lane
Change assist

Lane change
assist can prevent critical situations from occurring when changing lanes,
thereby reducing the risk of accidents. The system works by using two mid-range
 radar automotive sensors 20 in the
rear of the vehicle to monitor the areas next to and diagonally behind the

When the lane change assist
system detects vehicles in the driver’s blind spot or approaching rapidly from
the rear, it gives the driver a visual warning, for example, an illuminated
symbol in the area of the side mirrors. When the driver activates the turn
signal to indicate a lane change, the system can also give an audible and/or
tactile warning to make the driver aware of potential hazards. Construction Zone Assist

The construction zone assist
is an extension of lane keeping support and is also intended for narrow highway
construction sites. It is based on a stereo video camera and is active at
speeds of up to 100 km/h (62 mph). The function helps the driver to maintain a
lateral safety distance between vehicles in the adjacent lane and guard rails
or crash barriers when driving in a narrow lane.   Rear
cross Traffic Alert

Backing out of a parking
space at right angles to the road can often be a challenge – especially when
the driver’s view on the traffic passing at right angles behind his/her own
vehicle is blocked by obstacles. Rear cross traffic alert can make backing out
of parking spaces easier.   Driver
Drowsiness Detection

Monotonous driving, e.g. on
expressways, is exhausting and quickly leads to loss of concentration. Based on
steering-angle data, the function driver drowsiness detection continuously
analyzes the steering behaviour of the driver to identify phases during which
the driver does not steer for a brief period and then makes an abrupt
correction – often a sign of failing concentration and arising tiredness. The
function combines the frequency and strength of these reactions with other data
such as vehicle speed, time of day and use of other indicators to calculate a
tiredness index. If this index exceeds a specific value, a visual and/or
audible signal can warn the driver of becoming tired reminding her/him of the
danger of nodding off at the wheel. This parameter also considered for the
present work as a part of development a low cost ADAS which provides the
safety, security and authentication both for the driver and avoiding the
vehicle theft or misuse of the vehicle to start by controlling the ignition of
the vehicle through Finger print and face recognition authentication.

1.6   Summary

content in cars and trucks has significantly increased in the last 30 years.
Much of the functional safety 16 content of these vehicles is now generated
or controlled by electronic systems. This trend will continue in the future, as
more mechanical functions are converted to electronic and electrical functions.
Although any discussion of automotive products brings to mind the family sedan,
the automotive market and the electronics required for this market is very
diverse. Electronic controls are used extensively in heavy-duty vehicles such
as cement trucks and agricultural vehicles as well motorcycles and lawn mowers.

The requirements of low cost
and small size is a given for nearly all commercial electronics applications.
This is also true for automotive electronic systems and, as is the case with
many consumer electronic products, price is a major driver of the hardware
design. Although both consumer and automotive electronic hardware trends push
suppliers toward smaller size and lower cost, there are significantly higher
requirements for operating life, reliability and operating environment in
automotive applications. Automotive safety issues as well as customer
expectations require flawless function under all weather and operating conditions
for 10 years or more.

1.7     Proposal
of the Present Research work

aim of the present research work is to develop and implement a system that
would be the aid to the driver in keeping track of the vehicle parameters like
Fuel Level, Engine temperature, humidity and weather monitoring system. The
work also monitors and displays the road in real time and provide input if
obstacle is present and then immediately alert the driver to facilitate a
safety driving. The research also aims to provide SOS whenever accident is
detected. The domain of automotive electronics is huge and in this research
that we focus only on the three areas. They are

1.     Vehicle

2.     Driver

3.     Vehicle

In the
Vehicle Safety research we consider the area of protection against theft and
invalid access of vehicle to the others not having authentication. In the
Driver assistance research we also consider the area of pedestrian detection,
accident occurrence detection and message to mobile stations, camera based
maneuvering. In the vehicle infotainment research the area of terrain condition
monitoring and informing as alert to driver for the safety precaution and
displaying all the parameters on display Unit.

1.8 Objectives

The following are the
objectives of the present research work. They are

To provide an advanced security to vehicle against
theft using biometrics such as Finger Print and Face recognition with Alcohol
detection by comparing the data with already sored in the system memory.

For monitoring the important Engine parameters of the
vehicle and intimate same to the driver when the threshold values are violated
such as Temperature, Humidity and Fuel level of the vehicle and also to provide
the weather conditions of the driving terrain.

To alert the user about presence of pedestrians/
obstacles along the driving road and Vehicle Infotainment System and
implemented the same.