is approximated that there are more than 2500 species of mosquitoes worldwide.
Mosquitoes belong to the insect order Diptera, the family of Culicidae.
Mosquitoes are thought to be weak fliers but they can fly as far as 1 to 1.5
miles in one hour.
Eggs hatch when they’re exposed to water.
(EPA, 2017) Mosquito Wrigglers or commonly known as Mosquito Larva (plural:
larvae) are aquatic, and has large head and thorax and narrow, wormlike
stomach; they typically hold simply under the water surface, breathing air
through tubes at the end of the abdomen. If they are disturbed, they wriggle
downward. Larvae are continuously feeding on account that maturation calls for
a massive quantity of energy and food. They cling with their heads down and the
brushes through their mouths filtering any small food to be eaten toward their
mouths to nourish the developing larvae. They feed on algae, plankton, fungi
and bacteria and other microorganisms. The larvae of a few mosquito species are
cannibalistic, feeding on larvae of different mosquitoes: the largest
mosquitoes recognized are Toxorhynchites and some Psorophora, they are
predators of other mosquito larvae that share their habitat. Their larvae are
much larger than different mosquito larvae. They live in water from 4 to 14
days relying on water temperature. (AMCA, Retrieved: December 1, 2017). As
larvae feed, they grow, and as they get large, they also shed their skin and
this stage is known as “Instar”. After mosquito larvae shed they will undergo
the next stage in their life cycle, which is the pupa. (Mosquito critiques,
Retrieved: September 27, 2017)
Pupa (plural: pupae) also referred to as “tumblers,” are very energetic and
also like the larva, they stay in the water. (Entomology and Plant Pathology,
2017) Pupa looks as if a curled comma
and that also grasp just beneath the water surface, breathing thru air tubes.
(MDC discover Nature, 2013) They generally live in water from 1 to 4 days,
depending upon the species and temperature they are in. The pupa is lighter
than the water this is why they tend to float. (AMCA, Retrieved: September 27,
2017). The system includes the breakdown of the larval organs and the
replacement of tissues with the adult ones. (Entomology and Plant Pathology,
2017) (University of Florida, 2015). The pupa does no longer eat, but it does
not mean it is an inactive level. After 3 or 4 days, the adult mosquito will
emerge from the pupa and after a duration of rest, unfolds its wings and flies
away. (University of Florida, 2015).
Adult Mosquitoes the male mosquito commonly is being hatched first, and loiter
near the breeding site, waiting for the ladies. In common, a female mosquito
lives three to six weeks, but they could live up to five months. The male’s
lifespan is a lot shorter than the female’s. (College of Florida, 2015). Only
female mosquitoes require a blood meal and eat animals that have warm or cold
blood and birds. Stimuli that have an effect on biting (blood feeding) include
an aggregate of carbon dioxide, temperature, moisture, scent, coloration, and
motion. Male mosquitoes do no longer bite, however they feed on the nectar of
flowers or different suitable sugar source. Acquiring a blood meal (protein) is
essential for the production of egg, however, typically both male and female
mosquitoes are nectar feeders for their nutrition. (AMCA, Retrieved: September
The Adult commonly has three kinds
of species: Aedes Mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti), Anopheles Mosquito (Anopheles
SPP.), Culex Mosquito (Culex spp.). (Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017).
Aedes Mosquitoes every so often called “floodwater” mosquitoes
because flooding is important for their eggs to hatch. (Craig Freudenrich,
Ph.D., 2017). Egg to adult degree takes 6 – 8 days. The adult mosquito usually
has black and white markings on their body.
They are normally seen in container breeder specifically man-made
containers with clean water. (Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017). Aedes and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes are painful
and chronic biters they commonly bite mammals (especially humans). They search
for a blood meal early n the morning, at dusk (crepuscular feeders) and into
the evening. A few are diurnal (daytime biters) mainly on cloudy days and in
shaded areas. (AMCA, Retrieved: September 27, 2017). They include such species
as the yellow-fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito
The Anopheles mosquito is thought
universally as the Malaria Mosquito species because it’s considered the number
one vector of the disease. (Mosquito Magnet, Retrieved: September 27, 2017).
Egg to adult usually takes 6 – 10 days. Adults have pale and dark marks on its
wings and they are resting 45-degree angle to the surface. They usually stay in
pick clean and unpolluted water. They bite at night and rest indoor and outdoor
however it depends on species. (Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017).
The Culex Mosquito are the main
vector for Japanese B – Encephalitis, they’re also painful and chronic biters,
however, they choose to attack at dusk and after dark. They readily enter
dwellings for blood food. Culex mosquitoes are generally weak fliers and do not
go far away from their home, although they have been known to fly up to 2
miles. Those females that were born in late summer time are searching for
sheltered regions where they “hibernate” until spring. Warm weather
brings them out again on the search for water on which to lay their eggs.
(AMCA, Retrieved: September 27, 2017). Egg to adult stage usually takes 6 – 10
days. Adult Culex Mosquitoes has thorax, legs, and veins at the wings their
abdomen are always blunt. They may be typically located in polluted stagnant
water and drains. (Rentokil, Retrieved: September 27, 2017).
There are numerous illnesses which can
arouse if there could be a mosquito outbreak. The usual sicknesses are Malaria,
Yellow Fever, and Dengue Fever.
Malaria is a life-threatening
ailment. It’s generally transmitted via the bite of an infected Anopheles
mosquito. Infected mosquitoes bring the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito
bites you, the parasite will be released into your bloodstream. Once the
parasites are inside your body, they will go to the liver, wherein they mature.
After several days, the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to
infect red blood cells. Within 48 to 72 hours, the parasites within the red
blood cells will multiply, causing the infected cells to burst open. The
parasites retain to contaminate red blood cells, ensuing in signs and symptoms
that occur in cycles that last 2 to 3 days at a time. The signs of malaria
normally develop within 10 days to 4 weeks following the infection. The
infected human may encounter high fever, headache, nausea, vomiting,
stomachache, diarrhea, anemia, muscle pain, convulsions, and bloody stools.
(Burke, 2017) If not treated, malaria can quickly become life-threatening by
way of disrupting the blood supply to vital organs. (Herriman, 2015)
Yellow fever is a serious, potentially
lethal flu-like disorder spread by via mosquitoes. It’s characterized by a high
fever and jaundice. Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and eyes, that’s why
this ailment is called yellow fever. The Flavivirus reasons yellow fever, and
it’s transmitted whilst an infected mosquito bite you. Yellow fever develops quickly, signs and
symptoms may additionally arouse 3 to 6 days after exposure. The common
symptoms are headaches, muscle aches, joint aches, chills, fever, reduced
urination, stomach ache, vomiting (from time to time with blood), heart rhythm
problems. There is no cure for yellow fever but there are a few treats to help
the immune device like getting sufficient fluids, possibly through veins,
getting oxygen, keeping a healthy blood strain, getting blood transfusions,
having dialysis if you enjoy kidney failure, getting treatment for other
infections that may expand. (Story, 2016)
Dengue fever also referred to as
breakbone fever, it’s a disease due to a family of viruses which can be
transmitted by using mosquitoes. The symptoms of dengue fever include severe
joint and muscle ache, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, eye pain, rashes,
bleeding. Dengue fever has no remedy or treatment. (Cunha, 2017)
There are two oils that will be used in the
experiment the eucalyptus oil and the peppermint oil. Eucalyptus Oil is the
common name for purified oil from the Eucalyptus leaf. Eucalyptus is from the
plant family Myrtaceae which is indigenous to Australia. Eucalyptus oil has
been also used as a pharmaceutical, antiseptic, repellent, flavoring, fragrance
and industrial uses. The leaves of selected Eucalyptus species are steam
distilled to extract the eucalyptus oil.
Peppermint is a cross between watermint and
spearmint which is called as a hybrid mint. This plant originated in Europe and
the Middle East. The peppermint oil has a high concentration of pulegone and
methane which can repel some pest insects, including mosquitos, and has used in
organic gardening. The peppermint oil is also known to as a short-term
fundamental for irritable bowel syndrome and has used in traditional medicine
ailments because of its cooling effect it is used for muscle pain, nerve pain,
relief from itching, or as a fragrance. Too much use of peppermint may cause
irritation and mimic heartburn. Peppermint may have memory- and
alertness-enhancing properties because of its aroma.