Introduction: cause some difficulties that the child

Introduction:

When the child starts to pick up language? He starts earlier than most
of us think and end much later than we think too, because there is an end of
sound and grammar acquisition, but there is always some new world learn, therefore,
it is an ongoing process.

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The child starts learning language by imitation and experimenting with babbling,
then he  uses a one word sentence, next a
two word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his language,
that is not confined to speaking but to reading and writing skills. Many scientists
studied language acquisition and developed theories about vocabulary, discourse,
and grammar acquisition which is not just applicable in the English language
but also in other languages too. Literacy is not restrained in its use in
education or at work, it is part of our everyday life in malls, restaurants, and
even within the same families literacy practice is encouraged to help the child
to grasp and understand the use of language and to have confidence to deliver
his messages properly in written and spoken form, express his intentions and
personality according to the image he wants to deliver to the people around him.

The orthography system of the English has its downsides which cause some
difficulties that the child needs to overcome to have a good command over the language,
but it has its upsides that simplify the learning of this language. Currently English
is an international language that is not just used by native speakers but also
by non-native speakers , through the course of  learning English there are different and
common problems that both speakers face.

The language was among the first inventions of the human being, it has
its various systems that represent every nation around the world in its culture
and accomplishment which have been passed on  through generations,  and allow the new generation to express his
own time by his own words which gives the language new words and uses, causing
the language to change constantly.

The  theories about language acquisition
were an efforts of many scientist that study one language perspective at the
time grammar ,discourse…etc. and getting those bits and pieces into the jigsaw
of language acquisition gives us the big picture and its complexity and wondering
 natur

 

 

 

Language is a mean of communicating and expressing
thoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken language emerged first by making
sounds that represent pictures which  address the auditory system, then letters and
words that address the ophthalmic system of the human being. The necessity of a
writing system aroused from the need to record events and communicate it with
different people across the different period of time, different writing systems
were developed across the word which vary in its complexity.(Webster,1806)  it relates symbols or pictographs  to letters, syllables and sentence to communicate
written language .

Orthography is
“the accepted way of spelling and writing.” (www.cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the proper
letter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.com)                                                                                                                               

In a perfect  language, letters correspond with sounds, but
the English language is a syllabic language and has its characteristics, it
consists of twenty-six letters written from right to left in a sideways top to
bottom. In a perfect language every letter corresponds to a sound, however,
some of them correspond with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).The
inconsistencies in the English orthography made English a challenging language
to acquire even for children who are mono-lingual English native speakers,
because many inconsistencies were not just at the level of the letter and their
presentation of more than one sound, but also at the level of words.
Historically the English language is a dialect; its position was elevated and
became an international language spoken by many tongues as a mother language or
second or foreign language, it came into contact with English like Latin,
German, French, Danish which brought many words into the language and changing
other words meaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has French
and Italian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello,
now it is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building on
what is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English is
opaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the English
language causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes the
prediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.(www,youtube.com)

There are other difficulties that face not just
children but adult too, for example some  sounds stayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound in
words like: cough, enough, through or thought, other sounds were lost at the
beginning of the words in words like: wrong and knee, some letters become
silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology, Island. Daughter, furthermore words
have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is pronounced vegtable (www.thought.com), and some English letters give many different
pronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear, and heart.

The English orthography stabilized through the
centuries mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helped
in the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document the
pronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference between
different standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)
The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help to
differentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar ,morphemes like
inflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived.(allington,mayor,2012)

Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the child
starts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,
so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,
receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connection between
spoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver the meaning of
the message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.ca)
      

By studying language new methods were developed to
facilitate learning and teaching English according to many perspectives that
were adopted, one of those perspectives is social perspective, which depends on
the need and the necessity of the child to express his emotions, needs, and his
social identity in the society. How children acquire language is contentious
between the anthropologist, sociolinguists, psychologists…etc, and there are
many perspectives of their studies one of them is the social perspective toward
how a child acquires literacy and what they do with literacy in their everyday
life, and since spoken and written language are closely related literacy is a
part of a wider communicative practice, and using literacy in this sense
involves exchanging knowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who
have their essential role the way the children acquire language, and how they
get involved in practices that will help the children to gain literacy in a
more effective way like storybook reading which studies shown that it supports
the child language development, and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu)

There are many other reasons that affect
how child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the
society that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the
level of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,
and social class, religion, the position of the child in the family, and how he
deals with the difficulties that he faces which is part of the child psychology.

The literacy of the child at an early age
is strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to his
or her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that is
intertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices on
a frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction or
adventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring the
language in children is their relationship with their parents and their parent
beliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in school
that facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging children
in songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with children
in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary texts,
furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to learn
written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning and
make it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed in
bilingual communities that are affected by religion, social class, schools
parent’s educational level, and the bilingual children may have some
impediments in learning English for example if their other language is written
from right to left, not from left to right they may start writing English from
right to left, or they may think about the subject in one language and write it
in another or they may code-switch during writing.

In the end every child has the right to have the best
of his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life and
having difficulties in learning and writing should be  treated starts as a little human with the
ability and the need to express his thoughts, ambition and the right to define
himself as somebody with possibilities