Introduction are Intrinsic and Extrinsic. Intrinsic Motivation

Introduction

How does motivation play a role in
a childcare worker being driven in the workplace?  An individual being a prompt, or a driven
worker has long been linked to the personal and environmental factors that they
use to motivate themselves. Motivation is the reason for people’s actions, desires,
and needs. Motivation is also what causes us to behave a certain way, or what
causes a person to want to repeat a behavior (Wikipedia, 2017, p 1). It’s
the crucial element in setting and attaining goals.  This paper will analyze the different
types of motivation or motivators and how it applies within the childcare field
and how these factors causes their employees to perform at their best.
Motivation can be categorized in two different ways being, which are Intrinsic
and Extrinsic.

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Intrinsic Motivation
and Performance

 

Intrinsic Motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent
satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence (Ryan& Deci,
2000). In other words, it refers to the individual actions that is driven by
one’s own internal logic. Intrinsic motivation and performing well at your
job can go hand in hand because normally when a person chose to put forth their
best effort in an activity, it is normally related to a personal goal that has
already been set which needs to be achieved or mastered. This can be viewed as
mastery goal orientations in relation to an individual’s performance theory
because this is defined as the “desire to develop, attain, or demonstrate
competence at an activity” (Cerasoli & Ford, 2014,
p. 268). Thus, this results in intrinsic motivation to need a relax
environment for performance to be in relation of mastery goals because mastery
goals allow intrinsic motivation to bring about additional purpose (Cerasoli
& Ford, 2014). Therefore, think about an actor and when they chose to excel
at their craft they do it because they love that feeling of pleasure or
satisfaction of knowing that they got the viewers to evoke some form of emotion
while viewing their art. Being that this craft requires real skills it may initiate what is called performance-contingent
rewards. Performance- contingent rewards are rewards that relies on performance
which is given when one excels above a specified level of performance,
standard, or some defined criterion (Hendijani, et al.,
2016). As you can see along with an individual being intrinsically
motivated, comes many factors that can lead that individual to want to
continually perform at their best.

 

Extrinsic Motivation and Performance

Extrinsic Motivation reveals a
reason to participate in an action to an end rather than an end in itself
(Makki & Abid, 2017, p.38). Therefore, extrinsic motivation can be viewed
as behavior that is driven by external factors or environment such as money,
praise, fame, grades, reputation. For example, whenever a person is at work and
starts to enhance their performance because they have the goal in mind for a
promotion they are usually extrinsically motivated. “A
defining characteristic of labor is that it is done only for extrinsic reward,
whether that reward be pay for an employee, the price at which a self-employed
producer can sell his product, or the use of the product itself for a
subsistence producer” (Himmelweitp,1999, p.28). Extrinsic motivation can look
at as a need that individual been requiring or wanting to fulfil for their
personal gain or well-being. “Based on expectancy-value theories, motivation
toward a task is the result of effort-outcome expectancy (i.e., the perceived
probability of success) and the valence or desirability of the outcome (i.e.,
the attractiveness of the outcome). External rewards can improve overall
motivation and performance by enhancing the subjective probability of success
(i.e., rising expectancy; and by increasing the valence or desirability of the
goal upon which the reward is contingent. From the reinforcement theory
perspective, rewards can control behavior and can be used to influence behavior
in a specific direction. Based on agency theory, individuals are
self-interested, rational, and utility-maximizing. They are unwilling to exert
effort for a goal that does not contribute to their economic well-being.
Therefore, individuals choose and pursue goals that maximize their utility.
Performance-contingent rewards increase individuals’ utilities and are more
desirable compared to no reward or noncontingent reward conditions” (Hendijani,
et al., 2016, p. 254). The idea of being extrinsically motivated in relation to
performance seems to be that the idea to perform well only comes from person
own self attainments which in turn some looks to be selfish. In the article “The Interrelationship of Intrinsic and
Extrinsic Motivation” by Jerry Dermer about an experiment designed by
Hackman and Porter and while they were assessing extrinsic rewards based on
good budget performance, the results displayed that in seven statement budget
performance was connected to fulfillment of seven extrinsic rewards. Which were
“recognition, increased responsibility, advancement, better supervisory
relations, better peer relations, increased pay, and job security” (Dermer,
1975, p.126). Even though extrinsic motivation may get an individual to
originally perform a task it may find it hard to therefore keep that salience
in that activity.

 

Motivation and
Childcare Workers

 

Providing
childcare can be dated back as far 1700s and still today can be categorized as
an important institution that helps grow and enhance the individuals for
society from a tender age. “The roots of child and youth care work as a
distinct field in North America have been traced through the development of
institutional homes of the 1700s, camps and clubs of the early 1900s following
the industrial revolution and growing immigration, and contexts of residential
care, hospitals, and juvenile justice programs. It is ”within these
orphanages, industrial and training schools, residential schools, and
community-based recreational services that child and youth care was born in
North America” (Charles & Garfat, 2009, p. 19). There are four examples
demonstrates the needs and opportunities for these communities becoming
enlightened:  YMCA (1850s), Juvenile
courts (1890s), Boys and Girls Clubs (1900s), Boy and Girl Scouts (1910s),
(Freeman, 2013, p. 101). Childcare worker may not be viewed as a fun or easy
job. These workers are often underpaid, overworked, and always having to face
scrutiny. So, it is not to any surprise that they are often being asked why do
you do this job? Being that the childcare field is mostly populated by female
workers, research has shown that female is more intrinsically motivated. In the
article “Influence of Intrinsic and
Extrinsic Motivation on Employee’s Task Performance” After conducting their
research and using different method to see the correlation between extrinsic
and intrinsic motivation and task performance when the results were evaluated,
and they looked at the mean, standard deviation, and t value for scores of
genders on intrinsic motivation the results showed that female was more
intrinsically motivated as to males (Makki & Abid, p. 38). Individuals who
normally perform such work do not normally do it is fun or because it provides
great incentives but rather because it fulfills something internally that may
have needed to be met. In the report “Why
People Choose to Be Residential Child Care Workers” Tally Moses talks about
looking at the initial motivation behind why people look for employment as a
resident childcare worker. When asked participants of this study what made them
do this type of work the popular response involved, “a quest for providing
socially meaningful work that contributes to tomorrow’s generation or society
as whole” (Moses, 2000, p.118). When ask Debbie Chapman who works at Bright
Horizons an early education and preschool child care provider, what motivates
her to perform her task. She replied “To conquer the job and the obstacles that
may come with it. The follow question to that was, what type of feeling do it
give to you? Mrs. Chapman then responded financial freedom, so in her instance
both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation comes to play when performing her task
at the best of her ability. It is evident that there are many different factors
that contributes to a childcare worker being motivated to perform well at their
jobs. For example, “Cultivating a
thriving childcare workforce: a theory-driven qualitative analysis” when it
was examine  to see what work conditions
were most salient for childcare providers 
and  job resources enhance
childcare experiences on the job, the responses for salience had to do with
decision-making discretion, information sharing, climate of trust and respect
and the for resources were knowledge gained, positive meaning( had to do with
the meaning attributed to their works), positive emotions. In the positive
emotions one of the participants equated the entirety of the as “To sum it up,
it’s the most stressful job that you’ll ever love, with the biggest rewards!” (Travis,
et. al., 2014, p. 332-335). Also, in the childcare field the
differences of roles, titles, work environment or even the employees home
structure are some factors that would tend to influence how they perform their
job. For example, for like a company like Bright Horizons who has businesses
located throughout many different locations it seems to be a normal trend when
staff in different locations are asked about their feelings toward their jobs
to get many diverse responses. For example, when asked New York staff members
about their work environment why they are in the company the normal response
either stems from them either saying they are just doing this for now until
they finish school or get something better or on the other spectrum some says
they just have a love for kids and the joy they see on a child face or that
same feeling that they when the child have learned, discovered, or figured out
something new. When asked Elizabeth who used to work in one of the facilities
in Virginia about how was it to work there she replied “that was good and
motivating because it was a welcoming environment, and everyone worked as a
community rather than just for themselves and the directors for the site seemed
to really care and had her staff backs. Therefore, you can conclude that New
York employees seemed unhappier and less extrinsically motivated compared to
Virginia employees because the environment that was around them was not very
motivating to them and all the staff in New York region had a mentality of
everyone for themselves. In the childcare field the idea of freedom or
self-sufficiency seems to place a big role in childcare workers being pleased
in their profession. “Where values
collide: motivation and role conflict in child and adult protective services”
talks about interviews that were conducted with child and protective service
workers about the nature of their jobs and why they do it, the findings were:
“frontline workers found satisfaction in helping others, but noted it was the
gratitude of clients that was important in this regard. He noted it not so much
the nature of the work itself as the social reward of client’s appreciation
that workers found most gratifying” (Vinzant, 1988, p. 347). In the article, “Teacher education, motivation, compensation,
workplace support, and links to quality of center-based child care and
teachers’ intention to stay in the early childhood profession” it spoke a
study that looking at motivations for child care work and these are the
findings: “Providers were asked to rate on a scale from (1) “definitely does
not represent” to (5) “definitely represents” how well each of the following
questions describes their motivation for child care work: (1) “my career or
profession” (mean = 4.4; S.D. = 1.1); (2) “a stepping stone to a related career
or profession” (mean = 3.5; S.D. = 1.5); and (3) “a personal
calling” (mean = 4.5; S.D. = .8). The last question was designed specifically
for this study based on qualitative findings from another study of provider
motivation (Buell, Pfister, & Game-McCormick, 2002)” (Torquati, et.al.,
2007, p. 266).

 

Conclusion

 

After
conducting my research, I have come to notice that childcare workers are more
intrinsically motivated than extrinsically. These Individuals are driven based
on gaining a feeling of satisfaction and the feeling that they helped a person
life better whether it be through growth, environment, learning in general,
that’s what makes their job meaningful and worth it in the end. Also came to
conclude that a childcare worker motivation can therefore be both become
interrelated when it comes to whether they may be start off with either
intrinsic motivation and then end up completing the task extrinsically or vice
versa. Overall, there are many different factors that leads to the influencing
intrinsic or extrinsic motivation so whenever examining motivation in relation
to performance that must be taken into consideration.