Gagangeet TORA. As per conclusion AODV and

Gagangeet singh aujla, et.al 6-7,
11 discusses about comparative analysis of AODV, DSR, GRP, OLSR and TORA
routing protocols. In this paper routing protocols are analysed by varying
number of nodes with FTP and HTTP applications over MANETs. In this analysis
considered for email, video conferencing, traffic applications over MANET.
Performance metrics analysed with throughput, packet end-to-end delay, load,
data dropped. 7 analysed performance metrics throughput, delay, load and data
dropped for the comparison between DSR, AODV, GRP, OLSR, TORA. As per
conclusion AODV and OLSR shows low data dropped. AODV shows highest throughput
compare with OLSR and GRP protocol. This simulation analysis mainly compared
for the video conferencing. Simulation result 6, 18 shows the AODV protocol
gives highest throughput when http usage DSR shows least throughput in all
scenarios using FTP.

Harjeet kaur, et.al 8 focus on the
survey of proactive, reactive and hybrid routing protocol like OLSR, AODV and
ZRP. In this paper discuss about AODV less connection delay and loop free OLSR
and ZRP provides framework to other routing protocols.Hua Yang, et.al 9 discusses
about proposed continuous Hopfield Neural Networks was used to optimize the
route to seek an optimal or nearly-optimal route, it improves the usability and
survivability of MANET.

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Jaya Jacob, et.al 10 evaluates the
performance of various ad hoc routing protocols such as AODV, TORA, DSDV, DSR
and AOMDV. Routing protocols are analysed in terms of energy efficiency. Energy
or power consumption is governed by the number of processes and overheads
required to maintain connectivity. Simulation parameters are considered for
these analyses are packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay,
throughput, number of packets dropped. Results are obtained as AOMDV providing
better performance compared to AODV, TORA, DSR and DSDV protocols.

Mehran Abolhasan, et.al 13, 15-16
have shown comparison analysis, summary of different routing protocols under
proactive, reactive and hybrid routing.Rajasekar, S., et.al 17 discussed
about review on the routing protocols for mobile adhoc network issues, applications,
challenges. The objective of this research work is the comparative analysis of
many routing protocols for MANET in diverse manner.

Rajinder Singh, et.al 19 implemented
an effective algorithmic approach to optimize the packet loss in the network
simulator ns2. Expected broadcast count algorithm was proposed algorithm for
highest throughput between the each node. Reeta Bourasi, et.al 21 discussed
about reduce the packet dropping nodes by using reliability approach. Rishi P J
22 focused node mobility for mobile ad-hoc network protocols.
Satheeshkumar.S, et.al 24 discusses about various attacks 23 in the data
transmission in MANET. Poposed ACO based approach determines routing
performance at various levels. T.Senthil kumaran, et.al 25 focuses early
congestion detection for path discovery. Efficient route discovery process
mainly analysed with important performance metrics for evaluation packet
discovery ratio, end-to-end delay, routing overhead compared with EDAODV,
EDAPR, EDCSCAODV routing. Shivashankar, et.al 28 evaluates three different ad
hoc network routing protocols i.e. EPAR, MTPR, and DSR in different network
measures with power consumption. proposed method deals with the problem of
maximizes MANET network lifetime.

Study of performance comparison
analysis for AODV, DSDV, OLSR and TORA are routing protocols using NS2
simulation with several parameters like delay, packet loss, load and throughput
,20, 22, 26-27. Comparative study analyses of routing protocols for broadcast
in mobile ad hoc networks are discussed 29-31.

Yih-chun hu, et.al 32 focuses about
the secure and efficient routing in mobile wireless ad hoc network. Simulation
results are analysed for secure routing through four metrics i.e. packet
delivery ratio, byte overhead, packet overhead, median latency.

Yun-sheng yen, et.al 33 shows the
analysis of AODV, SHORT (Self-healing and optimizing routing techniques for
mobile ad hoc networks) and RAPLF (Routing with adaptive path and limited
flooding) with detailed route discovery process.

AODV is a reactive routing protocol
which does not maintain a route until it required or requested by other nodes.
AODV associate with other distance vector protocols by using sequence ID number
on route update. AODV will respond quickly to the changes in the topological
network and update only that particular host may be affected by the change
using the Route request packet (RQP) message. Mainly two messages are
convoluted for the route discovery. Route request packet (RQP) is used to
initialize the route for finding easiest path between source and destination.
Route response packet (RPP) message is used to response from the destination
node. AODV make certain routes through sequence numbers for easy credentials of
the desired route 12-14. Fig.1. shows determining a route in the MANET area
through AODV routing protocol.

When a source node initialized a route
to destination for which already it does not have a route to the source. Now
source can broadcast a route request packet or message across the network.
Every node is receiving this message or packet update their details for the
source node in the route information tables. In additionally to the source node
address, current sequence number, route request and broadcast identifier. A
node getting this route request message may send a response to the
corresponding node. If it is may either the destination node or if it may be a route
to the destination node. If this node is the end in the MANET region then
response message back to the source node. Otherwise it re-broadcast the route
request message till the destination node identify. Nodes can keep track the
route request messages and broadcast their node broadcast id. Once source node
receives route response message then it can prepare for send the data packets
to the destination node.

5. Restricted Predictive Flooding based
Ad hoc On Demand Vector (RPFAODV)

Initially source node initialized a route to
destination for which already it does not have a path to the source. Source
node send Route request packet (RQP) to neighbour’s node through restricted
flooding technique. Fig.2 shows RQP message initialize from source node to
destination node and RPP message reply from destination to source. Route
request packet is used to initialize the route for finding easiest route based
on the energy level at each node between source and destination node. RQP
fields are shown in Table 1.