Deshika at the first several stages also

Deshika Nuwangi Kulasekara

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Every Research
Scientist should follow some ethical, professional rules and guidelines in
conducting and publishing a research. To maintain the quality of science,
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Research misconduct has been
mainly categorized into three sections which are Fabrication, Falsification and
Plagiarism. According to OSTP Research misconduct is “Fabrication,
Falsification and Plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research or
in reporting research results.”  Simply fabrication is creating data or
results without conducting a proper research. Changing, not including data or
manipulating data to get preferred results, graphs and conclusions are
categorized under falsification. These fabricated and falsified results shouldn’t
be published or presented. The third research misconduct is plagiarism. If
someone publishes or report someone else idea, work or results without giving
credit to the owner can be categorized as plagiarism. According to the OSTP,
these three practices are the research misconduct.

But apart from
these, there are some problematic behaviors which can be happened during a
research. Questionable Research Practices, Non-Compliance, Sexual Harassment
and Authorship Disputes. In Questionable Research Practices, it says if
somebody doesn’t disclose negative results, or stops the research at the first
several stages also a problematic behavior in a Research. Inability to achieve
the standards of human and animal researchers also can be fallen under the
research misconduct which is called for Noncompliance. For research misconduct,
sexual harassment also can be a background reason. Even though it does not
directly relate to research misconduct but any falsification or fabrication is
done relate to the research with the persuasion by a sexual harassment also
considered as a problematic behavior. Apart from that arguments and
disagreements between the authors can form an unethical and problematic
situation which leads to a research misconduct. So, except falsification, fabrication
and plagiarism the above-discussed behaviors can be also considered as a part
of research misconduct.

Integrity
attributes trustfulness, honesty, and sincerity to the research conduct by
facilitating responsible high standard science. There are several ways to
monitor the integrity of the research in the field. Integrity should be
monitored during the proposing, performance as well as reporting the research.
Research proposals should be reviewed by an impartial panel to check whether
the idea is someone else or plagiarized.

Falsifications,
fabrications should be monitored during the performance of the research by
repeating individual’s work by another person, encourage to maintain a clear
record book and clear data set and should be monitored not to manipulate
research sources recklessly. When reporting the research plagiarism is been
concerned thoroughly to maintain the integrity of the research.

The accuracy of
the records of the thesis should be reviewed by a neutral scientist or by
another professor to maintain the integrity by checking plagiarism,
falsification and fabrication of the authors. And the authorship is very
important which can lead to many problematic affairs. When publishing a paper
every author, contributors should be given proper credit especially in
collaboration and should concern the requirements of the collaborators. Another
method is maintaining the integrity of peer review. In peer review an impartial
decision is important. The duty of a peer review is critical to maintaining
quality responsible, trustworthy science. By reviewing a paper by several
independent, fair scientists can monitor the integrity of the authors.
Conflicts of interests also may affect the integrity of a research. This
happens because of the clash between personal interest and professional
interest. In order to maintain the integrity, the individual research scientist
or the institutions should complain and disclose the conflict of interests.

If somebody
found out a research misconduct or doing some unethical work, they can first
discuss it with mentor or advisor or if not, they can go to the Research
Integrity Officer (RIO) or they can even make the complaint directly to the
Federal Agencies.

I believe that
self-regulation in integrity is effective in my research. Knowing regulations
and rules of a research conduct and being responsible for everything that we
did, leads us to maintain responsible research work even at the beginning. From
that we try to maintain our recordings clear, try to get the reliable, quality
results by even repeating several times, and do not try to manipulate data and
do not try to engage in any kind of research misconduct and become more
self-reliable and self-regulated.

Yes, they
should report a misconduct at the very beginning when they came to know. It can
be a suspicion, but it is better to complain to an authorized agency or a
person. Otherwise, they will be charged penalties and failures to report a
misconduct will affect the self-regulation. If a fraud has been found it would
be a bad effect and to the individuals itself as well as the name of the
institution. Depending on the nature of the misconduct penalties would be
decided. In some cases, the authorized person might be imprisoned, fined,
dismissed from the position and even loss the impression and connection with
contributors and funds. Research misconduct leads to attract more public
awareness. So not only someone loses the job in a particular organization but
also after the penalty no one would like to recruit that kind of a person.
Every time should try to be more careful of the people around you specially
when collaborating with another person or institute because even without
knowing a hugely problematic situation can be faced.

Therefore,
deliberate research misconduct is really dangerous and will affect the career
of a person. So it is better to report misconduct as soon as come to
know.  The best way to get rid of research misconduct is being away from
any kind of frugality and being more self-responsible to make any kind of a
mistake.

http://rcr.gatech.edu/research-misconduct

https://ori.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/rcrintro.pdf

https://www.citiprogram.org/members/index.cfm?pageID=665=1

http://rcr.gatech.edu/research-misconduct