2. if PH range is between 9.5

2.   Dr. Okoro’s note 2017 Petroleum engineering department covenant
university

1.   Baker Hughes Drilling fluid reference manual

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REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Also, we observed a drop in PH of the mud on addition of 3g of KCL
meaning KCL is effective for reducing Ph of a drilling mud

 The reason that the pH level is important is that much
more drilling additive will be needed to achieve the right viscosity if the pH
level is too low. Checking your pH levels will save you product and money in
the long run

Drilling muds are always treated to be
alkaline and PH affects viscosity, it was also noted that bentonite is least
affected if PH range is between 9.5 and 10.5 (Dr. Okoro 2017). The calorimetric
method isn’t as accurate as the electrometric method and can’t be used in high
salt Concentration

CONCLUSION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        Also the mud was observed to
become significantly thicker (in viscosity) after the addition of KCL

        From the experiment the pH reduced
from 9 to about 8 and this reduces the effectiveness of organic additives.

        This experiment brought out
the effect of adding KCL as an additive or a contaminant during drilling operations,
the addition of the salt caused a reduction in the pH making the mud to be slightly
acidic and is not a desire property as this can lead to further problems such as
corrosion of the drill string as well as the casing.

        The pH of a drilling mud is
of importance and needs to be constantly monitored by a mud engineer because it
directly affects the viscosity of mud. And generally muds are alkaline, having a
pH greater than 7.

DISCUSSIONS

CHAPTER 5

 

 

 

 

 

5.   I ensured the probe was kept moist

4.   I ensured I allowed the probe to stay
in the mud for about 60 seconds to ensure an accurate reading

3.   I ensured I rinsed the Bulb of the PH
meter after use

2.   I ensured I didn’t stick the Ph paper
into the mud but put it on the surface

1.   I ensured I avoided parallax error
taking readings from the graduated cylinder

Precautions

 

 

 

Sample 1 (25g/250ml)

Sample 1 + 3g of KCL

Temperature
(Celsius)

Electrometric

9.01

8.07

27.8

Colorimetric

9.0

8.0

28.0

mv

-105.5

-45

 

 

RESULT AND PRECAUTIONS

 

CHAPTER 4

 

– I stored the sensitive bub back
clean and rinsed

-I ensured I kept the probe moist and
put the rubber cap supplied with the probe as a cover

Maintenance

 

5.   Added 3g of KCL and repeated
the procedures above.

4.   Took the PH readings as well as the
temperature readings

3.   Rinsed the probe, then
immersed it into the drilling mud and allowed
about 60 seconds for the readings to stabilize

2.   Pushed the Ph/mv key until the desired
mode was achieved.

1.   I switched on the power
switch of the pH meter

Electrometric
method

 

5.   Added 3g of KCL and repeated
procedure 3 and 4

4.   I matched the colour to the colour on
a standard colour chart indicating the PH and took the reading

3.   I placed a strip of Ph paper on the
surface of the mud and waited for the side facing upwards to change colour

2.   I turned on the mixer,
slowly pouring the 25g of weighed bentonite and mixed for a while until the mud
had attained a good consistency

1.   Using a measuring cylinder,
I measured out 350ml of water and poured it into the mixing cup of the mixer

Colorimetric
method

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

CHAPTER 3

Fig 1.0 pH paper                                                      Fig 2.0 pH Meter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sample 2: sample 1 + additive (3g of KCL)

Sample 1: 25 g of bentonite in 350ml
of water

 

5.   PH Meter: This is an electric meter that measures PH to the nearest 0.1ph
unit.

4.   PH Paper and colour chart: This was used to observe a colour change and
matched against the standard colour chart

3.   Measuring Cylinder: It was used to measure the required volume of water.

2.   Electric Mixer: The electric mixer was used to mix and create a homogenous
mixture of sample 1 and sample 2

1.  
Weigh Balance: It was used to
obtain the required weight of bentonite as well as barite needed for the
experiment

The
following apparatus were used during the experiment

EXPERMINETAL APPARATUS

CHAPTER 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

–     
Thermal stability of
lignosulphonate systems improves above 10.0

–     
Reduced corrosion rated at
higher PH

–     
Maximum effectiveness of
organic dispersants and filtration control agents

        A high PH of about 9.5 to 10.5 is given
for the following reasons:

It is a fact that the PH of mud is generally alkaline and, in fact
viscosity control agents like bentonite are more efficient at a PH greater than
9. The PH of a drilling mud is the negative
logarithm of hydrogen ion(H+) concentration. Freshwater usually has
an equal concentration of both hydroxyl and hydrogen ions making it have a PH
of 7. The PH of a drilling mud can be determined using a colorimetric method,
which utilizes chemically-treated PHydrion paper which is placed on the surface
of the fluid until a color change is noted and matched with a color chart. If
salt concentration is greater than 16,000 m g/l CL-, PH paper is not
recommended.

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1

 

6.  
REFERNECES
————————————————————- 10

 

5.  
CONCLUSION
———————————————————– 9

 

   5. DISCUSSION——————————————————–8

 

4.  
RESULT AND PRECAUTIONS
————————————— 7

 

3.  
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AND
MAINTENANCE————-    6

 

2.  
EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS—————————————-
5

 

1.  
INTRODUCTION—————————————————–   4

CHAPTERS

 

 

TABLE OF
CONTENTS——————————————-    3

 

ABSTACT
——————————————————-     2

TITLE

Table of content

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keywords: drilling mud, pH of drilling
fluid, KCL additive

 

It was discovered that addition of
the KCL reduced the PH of the drilling mud and this is of importance because it
indicates that KCL is an effective PH control additive.

In this experiment we determined the
PH and Temperature of a water-based drilling mud with both the colorimetric and
Electrometric method and added KCL to determine its effect on PH.

The pH of a drilling mud is one very important
property that needs to be closely monitored as it has numerous implications on drilling
cost and problems.

ABSTRACT

 

Date submitted: 27th January, 2018

Date performed: 26th January, 2018    

 

15CN03211

ADEYEMI OLUWAFISAYO

 

BY

 

EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION

 

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY

 

CANAAN LAND, OTA

COVENANT UNIVERSITY